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Child Psychology

Child Psychology

Health is inseparable from physical and spiritual dimensions, and the organic basis for the interconnection of these spheres is the unity of the physical and spiritual development of man. Our body is in close relationship and interconnected with physical and spiritual health. Mental health is an integral part of our overall health. Mental health is a state of well-being in which a person realizes his abilities, can resist ordinary life stresses, work productively and contribute to his community. In this positive sense, mental health is the foundation of human well-being and effective community functioning.

Mental health and well-being are essential for our collective and individual ability to think, express emotions, communicate with each other, as well as to earn one's livelihood and enjoy life. Given this fact, strengthening, protecting and restoring mental health can be perceived by individuals, communities, and communities around the world as actions of vital importance.

One of the most common problems in childhood are problems with anxiety. This can be called an emotional state of anxiety - it is a sense of anxiety, accompanied by fear of which children are suffering. In children this can be caused by academic difficulties, problems of self-esteem, social phobia, and obsession. A child may encounter problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, speech disorders, encopresis, and enuresis. The psychological discomfort experienced in childhood has a number of negative consequences, which can have a very negative impact on the child's future, especially in the adolescent period. Childhood is represented as a period of human life, the nature of which is determined by the structure of society and the features of its development. The greatest benefit that can be done for a child is to give him the opportunity to discover and develop the opportunities that are given to him from birth.

Psychological tests are used to diagnose and treat children's problems. Psychological tests are a systematic approach that allows the study of the character, abilities, emotions, needs and other properties of the human personality. A psychological test helps a psychologist and a psychiatrist obtain very important data for diagnosing a person and their abnormalities. Tests are conducted directly by an experienced team of psychologists.



Children's Apperception Test – CAT

With the help of this technique, it is possible to identify: the main needs and motivations, the perception and attitudes of the child to parents (including parents as a married couple), the relationship of the child to siblings, the content of personal conflicts as a consequence of the frustration of the child's leading needs, as ways of resolving internal conflicts, aggressive fantasies, fears, phobias, anxiety associated with situations, frustrations, dynamic and structural features of the child's behavior di peers. The research is carried out individually, positioning not as a test, but as a game. After establishing contact with the child, he is presented with pictures. Pictures effectively stimulate the imagination. During therapy, the psychologist is evaluated; ability to cope with difficulties, methods of conflict resolution, evaluation of the structure of the individual.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Wisc-R

WISC-R Wexler test (or Wexler scale) is one of the most famous tests for measuring the level of intellectual development of the ability of children aged 6 to 16 years, also the ability to measure cognitive abilities in toddlers 11 months. Wexler's test WISC-R consists of different subtests that assess the skills of children in different areas. The duration of the test is 60-120 minutes. In the process of applying the test, you can identify the strengths of the personality and determine the stage of development of the child. The calculation of results and evaluation can change significantly due to changes in living conditions, upbringing and education of a child interested in relevant areas.


Gesell test (GESELL) - a developmental test for children

The Gesell test is an evaluation of the effectiveness that determines the general state of the development of children: the motor and linguistic development of the child, personal, social and adaptive forms of behavior. In general, the return group of children is 3-7 years. Using the test are evaluated; motor skills, visual perception, visual memory, hand coordination and muscle skills in children.

The test consists of 7 basic forms, with recurring complexity. The psychologist shows the children drawings with an illustration of different figures and asks to remember. Next in a short time the child should draw from memory. Drawings painted by children are evaluated. The overall score indicates the level of development of the child.

Test of school maturity

In terms of physical, mental, social and emotional development status, the child must be at a certain level of adaptation to the school.

The test of school maturity is an efficiency test that determines the child's readiness for primary school, which is applied to children aged 5 to 6 years. The test consists of 6 subtests and is carried out individually, and the duration of application is 24 minutes.


The Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception

Visual perception is a combination of processes of constructing the visual image of the surrounding world. This process is characterized by arbitrariness and purposefulness. It can be studied and described from the point of view of the most diverse parameters: perception and coding of various properties of the object, visual-motor integration, noise immunity and constancy, visual perception and scanning of the perceptual field and many others. Visual perception is provided by a whole complex of brain devices. Moreover, interhemispheric differences in the parameters of visual perception can be considered from the point of view of the prevailing information processing strategy. The test is applied to children aged 4 to 8 years and takes approximately 35-45 minutes.



The final conclusion on the child's psychomotor development is made on the basis of his ability to carry out assignments characteristic of his age. For each of the sublevels, at least three completed and three unfulfilled tasks that are closest to the child's age should be obtained. If the child does not cope with the tasks that 90% of his peers are doing, then the answer is regarded as "negative." If the child confidently performs the task, which is owned by only 25% of peers, the answer is assessed as "ahead of schedule."

For the test used for children aged 0-6 years, there is no time limit. The test allows to determine in detail the development of the child in accordance with his age. If there is a risk of developmental delay and irregular development, the necessary measures of therapy and treatment are taken.

Visual-motor Gestalt test (Bender)

Bender Gestalt test performance, which provides information on visual perception of children, visual coordination of movements and diagnosis of various clinical syndromes, including mental deficiency, aphasia, various organic brain disorders, psychoses, neuroses, and simulation. The test is used mainly to detect signs of organic brain lesions, spatial analysis and synthesis are primarily reflected in graphic movements.

The stimulus material of the visual-motor gestalt test consists of 9 standard cards with geometrical figures depicted on them, presented to the examinee in a certain sequence. Images are selected from a series of figures proposed by M.Wertgeimer, one of the founders of the Gestalt psychology school. The subject is asked to reproduce each image according to the sample before him and from memory.

Vocabulary test in pictures of Peabody

This is a performance test evaluating the development of the language of children between the ages of 2 and 12 years. With this test, even children with developmental delays can work with pleasure. It can also be viewed as a test of general intelligence based on the fact that more intelligent children by nature, on the whole, cope with it more successfully than the less intelligent. The test consists of questions that are aimed at measuring the development of the correspondence of words with pictures. During testing there is no time limit. The child is shown a map. There are 8 pictures on each map. The child is asked to show an image that corresponds to the word that is sounded to him. According to the chronological age, the child's vocabulary is determined.

Labyrinth Test of Porteus

It is used as an individual test designed to measure non-verbal aspects of mental ability (calculability, planning and foresight), applied to children and adolescents from 7-14 years of age. The test consists of 12 labyrinth maps of varying degrees of complexity based on age ranges. Labels are shown on the sheets of paper, followed by an increase in difficulty. Task - draw a path from either the entrance to the exit or the path from the center of the labyrinth. There is no time limit.


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